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Policies and Actions
 

China


National level agency/organisation dedicated to preservation and promotion of traditional/folk performing arts

- Chinese Academy of Arts (It has a Reference Library and several research institutions, such as the Music Research Institute, the Dance Research Institute, the Xiqu Research Institute, the Quyi Research Institute etc.): Qian Hai Xi Jie No. 17, Beijing 100009
- Cultural Ministry National/Folk Arts Center: Dongcheng District Beiheyan Dajie Jia No. 83, Beijing 100005
- The Chinese Academy of Social Sciences Minorities' Literature Research Institute: Jian Guo Men Da Jie No.5, Beijing 100732
- Central University for Nationalities Research Institute of Minorities' Literature and Arts: Hai Dian District Wei Gong Cun, Beijing 100081
- Cultural Institutions Directly under the Central Government

Prominent NGOs working in this field

There are hundreds of national non-governmental organizations in the country. Among them, the China Federation of Literary & Art Circle (CFLA)is the most representative one.

The CFLA has 12 Associations covering all kinds of arts:
Chinese Writer's Association, Chinese Musicians' Association, Chinese Dancer's Association, China Association of Folk Writers & Artists, China Film Association, Chinese TV Worker's Association, Chinese Artists' Association, Chinese Dramatists' Association, Chinese Calligraphers' Association, Chinese Photographers' Association, Chinese Acrobats' Association, Chinese Quyi Artists' Association.

Brief chronology-history

1949
July 2: On the eve of the establishment of the People's Republic of China, the 1st Representative Conference of Chinese Literature & Arts' Workers was held in Beijing. It planed and prepared the work of literature and arts, many folk performing arts which were dying were enabled to revive and develop.
July 19: All-China Federation of Writers and Artists Circle established. Chinese Dancers' Association, Chinese Musicians' Association, Chinese Dramatists' Association etc. established in succession. Xiqu Improvement Committee established. The Cultural Ministry established a Xiqu Improvement Bureau with subordinates as Peking Opera Research Institute, Pingju Opera Troupe, Experimental School of Xiqu, and Mass Theater etc.

1950
March: China Association of Folk Writers & Artists established.
Nov: National Working Conference of Xiqu held by the Culture Ministry.
Dec: The Central Academy of Drama attached Song & Dance Group founded (later the Central Opera & Dance Drama House).

1951
April: Chinese Xiqu Academy established.
During this year, the Instructions of the State Council Concerning Reformation of Xiqu issued.

1952
Aug: Art Troupe of the Central Institute for Nationalities established (now the Central Song & Dance Ensemble).
Oct: The Culture Ministry held the 1st National Xiqu Demonstrative Performance.

1953
Jan: Puppet Show Performance held by the Chinese Dramatists' Association.
April: Culture Ministry held the 1st National Folk Music/Dance Performance.
Sept: 2nd Representative Conference of Chinese Literature & Arts' Workers held in Beijing.
Sept: Chinese Quyi Artists' Association established
During this year, the National Music Research Institute of the Central Conservatory of Music organized field work in folk song of Hequ, Shanxi Province. Special Issue of Folk Song Investigation in Hequ, Shanxi Province published in 1956.
Also during this year, the Traditional Music Ensemble of the Central People's Broadcast Station established.

1954
March: National Music Research Institute of the Central Conservatory of Music (now the Music Research Institute of Chinese Academy of Arts)officially established, also the 1st Exhibition Room of Chinese Musical Instruments was founded in the Institute.
June: Instruction of Strengthen the Leadership and Management of the Folk Professional Troupes issued by the Culture Ministry.
June: Beijing Society for Research in Guqin established.
May: Chinese Puppet Show Art Group established.

1955
Jan: China Peking Opera House established.
Jan: China Pingju Opera House established.
April: Culture Ministry held the 1st Puppet Show and Piying Show Performance.
June: Culture Ministry entrusted the Chinese Academy of Xiqu with the holding of the 1st & 2nd Xiqu Performers' Group Study. The 3rd was held at Shanghai and Guangzhou in 1957.

1956
The State Council directed a formulate of 12-Year Long-Range Plan for Philosophical/Social sciences which included a plan for Arts.
March: Culture Ministry held the 2nd National Folk Music/Dance Performance.
April-June: National Music Research Institute of the Central Conservatory of Music joined with the Culture Bureau of Hunan Province in a general investigation of Folk Music in Hunan Province.
June: Culture Ministry held the 1st National Working Conference in Xiqu's Repertoire.
Aug: 1st National Music Week held in Beijing.

1957
May: National Music Research Institute joined in the Minorities Society/History investigation of Guizhou and Hunan organized by the State Nationalities Affairs Committee, and co-operated with other institutions in the same project in 1958.

1958
April: editorial article of the People's Daily: Extensively Collect Folk Songs around the Whole Country published on April 26. All-China Federation of Literary & Art Circle, Chinese Writers' Association and the Chinese Association of Writers & Artists held a forum to discuss the collection and documentation of folk songs and folk rhymes.
June: Joint Public Performance of Modern Theme Xiqu held in Beijing
Aug: 1st National Quyi Joint Performance held in Beijing.

1960
March: Culture Ministry entrusted the Chinese Academy of Xiqu with holding Mei Lanfang's Performing Arts' Study Class.
April: Culture Ministry held Demonstrative Performance of Modern Theme Xiqu.
July: 3rd Representative Conference of Chinese Literature & Arts' Workers held in Beijing.
During this year, the Classical music Twelve Mukam of the Uygur Nationality of Xinjiang Autonomous Region published bilingually in Uygur and Han by the People's Music Publishing House and the Nationalities Publishing House.

1961
April: Performance and Forum of Jiu gong da Cheng Held by Chinese Musicians' Association.
April: Propaganda Department of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China issued Eight Rules Concerning Literature and Arts including the following main contents: Continue to carry out the policy of 'Let a hundred schools of thought contend': Raise the quality of creation; Inherit traditional heritage with discrimination and absorb foreign culture with discrimination; Assure time for creation, pay attention to alternate work with rest and recreation; Cultivate, encourage and aqard outstanding personnel: Strengthen unity, continue reformation; Improve leading method and leader's style of work.
Nov: Forum on Music Traditional Musical Ensembles held by Chinese Musicians' Association. The forum discussed about inheritance and promotion of traditional music heritage.

1962
Jan: Oriental Song & Dance Ensemble established.
Feb: Central Traditional Music Ensemble established.

1963
Oct: 1st volume of Collection of Qin Music published. (edited by Chinese Music Research Institute and Beijing Society for Research in Guqin)
Dec: Meeting of Guqin Notation Deciphering held in Beijing (2nd & 3rd meetings held in 1983, 1985).

1964
April: Forum of Reformation of Traditional Musical Instruments held by the Chinese Musicians' Association.
Sept: Draft of Chinese Ancient Music History 1st & 2nd volumes by Yang Yin-liu published (totally published in 1981).
During this year, Modern Theme Peking Opera Demonstrative Performance held.

1966-1976
Cultural Revolution. Work suspended.

1978
Zeng Hou Yi Tomb in Suixian, Hubei Province unearthed 124 pieces of musical instruments.

1979
The culture Ministry decided to edit and publish the series collection: Collection of Chinese Folk Songs, Collection of Chinese Xiqu Music, and began to organize the work.

1980
March: Beijing Society for Research in Guqin revived.
May: Society of Chinese Ancient Music History established.
June: National Symposium in National (Ethnic)Music held in Nanjing, and established Chinese Traditional Music Society later in 1986. The Symposium negotiated that annual meetings will be held every 2 years (the 10th Annual meeting held in 1998).
Sep: Culture Ministry and the State Nationalities Affairs Committee held National Nationality Literature & Arts' Joint Performance in Beijing.

1981
Oct: Chinese Modern/Contemporary Music History Symposium held in Beijing.

1982
March: Culture Ministry held in Wuhan the 1st National Traditional Instrumental Music Solo Demonstrative Performance. (2nd held in September in Beijing).
April: Forum of Multi-parted Folk Song of Nationalities held by the Culture Ministry.
June: 1st concert of China Conservatory Sound of China Series Concerts - Artistic Songs based on Chinese Ancient Poems- held in Beijing (6th concert - Folk Drum and Winds Music of Liaoning Province -held in 1988).
Sept: Commentary Symposium of Pipa Notation of the Tang Dynasty held in Beijing.

1983
March: Symposium of the musical instrument sheng held in Beijing.
Aug: Symposium of Bowed and String Instruments/Symposium of Guzheng Strings' System held in Beijing.
Aug: National Symposium of Dun Huang and the establishment of Chinese Trufan Society held in Lanzhou.

1984
April: Suzhou City Tangming Music Group Study held in Suzhou in order to rescue the Shifanluogu music of Sunan.
July: Society of Chinese Minorities Music established in Guiyang. The meeting negotiated to hold annual meetings every 2 years. (the 6th Annual meeting held in 1995, the 7th held in 1997)
Aug: Chinese Musicians' Association Beijing Branch and Beijing Society of Buddhism held a Jingyinyue performance at the Guang Hua Temple.
Oct: Society of Chinese Minorities Vocal Music established.
During this year. the 1st dictionary of Chinese music Chinese Music Dictionary published.

1985
June: Society of Chinese Nan Yin established in Quanzhou, Fujian Province.
July: Chang'an Ancient Music Club established in Xi'an.
Oct: Society of Chinese Music History established in Nanjing.

1986
March: Beijing Buddhist Music Ensemble established in Beijing.
Sept: Chinese Traditional Musical Instrument Exhibition Hall founded in Shanghai.
Oct: 1st National Symposium of Quyi held in Chengdu.
Nov: Society of Chinese Traditional Winds & String Music established.
Dec: National Folk Music/Dance Competition held in Beijing.

1987
July: Audiovisual production of one of the Chinese Buddhist Ritual Rules Shuilufaling special volume appraised.
Sept: 1st Chinese Arts' Festival held in Beijing. (4th held in 1987 in Lanzhou)
Dec: 2nd National Minorities Traditional Vocal Competition held in Beijing.

1988
Jan: Dragon Music Week Traditional Music Performance held in Beijing.
Oct: Performance & Symposium of Chinese Guqu (drum music)held in Beijing

1989
April: Encyclopedia of China - Music & Dance Volume published.

1990
Aug: International Symposium of the Art of Chinese Guqin held in Chengdu.

1991
Feb: Editorial Meeting preparing to write History of Chinese Minorities Music held by the Central University for Nationalities Research Institute of Minorities Literature & Arts and the Society of Chinese Minorities Music. (1st volume published in 1998)

1993
Feb: Chinese Music Copyright Association established.
March: 1st Guangxi International Folk Song Festival/ Symposium of National (Ethnic)Culture & Arts held in Nan Ning.
Sept: Symposium of Promote Traditional Music, Preserve & Protect Folk Music Heritage held by Chinese Academy of Arts and Chinese musicians' Association in Beijing.

1995
May: 1995 International Traditional Music Performance Competition held in Beijing.
July: 1995 International Symposium on the Art of Chinese Guqin held in Chengdu.
Sept: 1st Symposium of Chinese Folk Gu Chui Yue (drum & winds music)held in Gu'an, Hebei Province.

Legislation in this field

-The Law of the People's Republic of China on the Protection of Cultural Relics (1980)
-The Copyright Law of the People's Republic of China (1990)
-Regulations on the Protection of Works of Folklore China (in process)
-Regulations on the Preserving of Ethnic & Folk Cultural Traditions of the People's Republic of China (in process)

Note: Legal system for the preservation and promotion of traditional/folk performing arts.
According to the Constitution of the People's Republic of China, the legal system of the country is of one class and multi levels. The Constitution bestows on the State Council, the provincial and the municipal governments directly under the Central Government rights to make regulations and local regulations. So, in China, under the Constitution, there are regulations made by the State Council, and administration rules made by the highest administrative organizations (such as the Ministry of Culture)and local regulations made by the provincial governments.

It is counted that since 1949 the establishment of the People's Republic, there are more than 300 regulations and rules concerning cultural affairs, including preservation and promotion of traditional/folk performing arts.

Category/types of performing arts

China is a country with long standing civilization and large population, it is very rich in traditional/folk performing arts which we could divide into types as: music, dance, xiqu (local opera), quyi (musical story telling), acrobat, puppet show piying (leather-silhouette show, shadow play)etc.

Each type would include various kinds, for instance, xiqu, could be divided into approximate by 317 kinds according to the local dialect & pronunciation, the difference of musical tune, and the difference of diffusion (according to statistics in 1980 and in 1981 by the Xiqu Research Institute of Chinese Academy of Arts, please see the Encyclopedia of China, Xiqu & Quyi Volume ); another example such as quyi, according to the investigation in 1982, there is approximate 341 kinds of quyi in the country.
(see Encyclopedia of China, Xiqu & Quyi Volume )

Inventories/directories

ISBN Chinese Center
1988 Collection and Annals of Chinese Ethnic & Folk Traditional Literature & Arts.
ISBN Chinese Center.
(Already published 142 volumes, plan to publish 450 volumes, planned to be totally published in 2003.)
(Format: print, Chinese)

Publishing House of Encyclopedia of China
1989 Encyclopedia of China. Music & Dance Volume.
Publishing House of Encyclopedia of China.
(Format: print, Chinese)

Publishing House of Encyclopedia of China
1983 Encyclopedia of China Xiqu & Quyi Volume.
Publishing House of Encyclopedia of China.
(Format: print, Chinese)

Chinese Culture & Arts Press
1999 Chinese Culture Series.
Chinese Culture & Arts Press.
(Format: print, Chinese)

Audio・visual documentation collection

(1)Chinese Academy of Arts (It has a Reference Library and several research institutions, such as the Music Research Institute, the Dance Research Institute, the Xiqu Research Institute, the Quyi Research Institute etc. Each institute has its professional library.)
Qian Hai Xi Jie No.17 Beijing 100009
Form of documentation: books, written materials, photos, slides, sound recordings, video tape recordings, instruments, costumes, stage property etc.

(2)Cultural Ministry National/Folk Arts Center
Dongcheng District Beiheyan Dajie Jia No.83, Beijing 100005
Form of documentation: books, written materials, photos, sound materials, video tape recordings

(3)The Chinese Academy of Social Sciences Minorities' Literature Research Institute
Jian Guo Men Da Jie No. 5 Beijing 100081
Form of documentation: books, written materials

(4)Central University for Nationalities Research Institute of Minorities' Literature and Arts
Hai Dian District Wei Gong Cun, Beijing 100081
Form of documentation; books, written materials.

All of the documentation mentioned above are available for viewing/listening.

Aspects of traditional/folk performing arts in education

(1)All comprehensive universities and normal universities offer Chinese literature, music, fine arts and specialities.
(2)The academies and middle schools that are specially dedicated for training personnel of Chinese traditional/folk arts have Chinese traditional/folk arts as their major courses
(3)In the academies of higher education in arts which trains personnel of every kind of arts also offers Chinese traditional/folk performing arts courses. Take the Central Conservatory of Music as example: It is a conservatory of higher education dedicated to train musicians of all kinds. The conservatory has the following departments-composition, musicology, conduct, national instrument, wind & string instrument, piano, voice & opera with 14 majors. It has graduates, undergraduates, advanced studies for cadres, advance study classes, classes for teachers, evening university class, an attached middle school and an attached elementary school. It is required that all students, no matter what they major in, should take Chinese traditional and folk music courses, Chinese ancient music history, Chinese modern and contemporary music history, Chinese folk song, Chinese song and dance music, quyi music, xiqu music etc. All courses mentioned above are required courses, each course 4 hours per week, for one semester.

Note: System of training of personnel engaged in the preservation and promotion of traditional/folk performing arts.
1)There are 30 higher education institutions concerning training artists of every kind, including traditional/folk performing arts. Among the institutions, there are 12 key institutions in arts in the country.
2)There are 130 secondary schools concerning training artists of every kind, including traditional/folk performing arts.
3)There are graduate schools which offer master's degrees and Ph.D. in arts. 27 centers grant doctorate degrees in arts, and 84 centers grant master's degrees in arts. Moreover, during the recent years, there are postgraduate classes for outstanding young Beijing Opera artists and postgraduate classes for outstanding young national vocal and instrumental music artists to train master level national artists.

Data provider

(2000)
Ms. Cai Liang-yu
Professor, head of foreign music research division
Music Research Institute of Chinese Academy of Arts
Address: Qian Hai Xi Jie No.17 Beijing 100009, China