MANGO stands for Map-based Analysis for Non-formal Education Goals and Outcomes. It is a regional project by ACCU and UNESCO APPEAL to develop computer software and handbooks for analysis of progress in the achievement of NFE goals at the project and community levels.

Middle Level (Level II)
Learning level for adults who have completed basic level and/or have acquired basic skills (ATLP Curriculum).
Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)

The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are eight international development goals; (1) eradicating extreme poverty and hunger; (2) achieving universal primary education; (3) promoting gender equality and empower women; (4) reducing child mortality; (5) improving maternal health; (6) combating HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases; (7) ensuring environmental sustainability; and (8) developing a Global Partnership for Development. The MDGs are drawn from the actions and targets contained in the Millennium Declaration that was adopted by 189 nations and signed by 147 heads of states and governments. The MDGs aims to be achieved by 2015.
(Source) UNDP Website:

A process of checking a programme regularly to find out how far it is implementing according to plan.

The first language spoken by children in their family environment.
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Individuals who have completed a literacy training programme recently and have demonstrated the ability and willingness to continue to learn on their own using the skills and knowledge they have attained without the direct guidance of a literacy teacher.
New Participatory Method (NP Method)
ACCU's method of analyzing assimilated data for identification of problems and needs with the participation of all members involved in the process.

Non-Formal Education (NFE)
Refers to intentionally organized learning events catering essentially to persons not currently participating in formal education, which do not fulfill one or more of the underlined conditions shown for formal education.

Non-Governmental Organization (NGO)
A typical non-profit, non-official organization which is actively involved in the process of socio-economic development. The organization can be local, national, or international in scope. It relies mainly on donations or contributions (grants and aids) for their operation.

The knowledge and skills required to apply basic arithmetic operations, either alone or sequentially, to numbers embedded in printed materials.
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Out-of-School Children
Those in the officially defined primary school-age group who are currently not enrolled in school, including those who dropped out.
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A set of literacy materials developed by ACCU, in order to assist materials developed at local levels. PALM stands for Package for developing Adult Learning Materials. It aims to produce materials fully reflecting local needs for each community. It consists of a "handbook", a set of "exemplar materials" and "Clip Art".
Percentage of Cohort Reaching Grade 5
Percentage of children starting primary school who eventually attain Grade 5 (Grade 4 if the duration of primary education is four years). The estimate is based on the Reconstructed Cohort Method, which uses data on enrolment and repeaters for two consecutive years.
Percentage Share of Girls' Enrolment
Number of girls in total enrolment at a given level of education expressed as the percentage of total enrolment at that level of education.

Setting the goal and objectives by identifying and predicting the needs, and then design detailed organizational structure, methods and resources to achieve the goal.

A stage where very essential and basic abilities in reading, writing, and numeracy are acquired but the level of which is not sufficient to perform the literacy-related tasks needed to function fully at home, at work, and in the day-to-day civic life.

Post-Literacy Programmes
These aim to maintain and enhance basic literacy, numeracy and problem solving skills, giving individuals sufficient general basic work skills to function effectively in their societies (ATLP-CE Volume II).

Pre-Primary Education
Education preceding primary education, either organized by the government or on private initiative. Sometimes the term "Early Childhood Education" is also used. This includes formal education in Nursery Schools and/or Kindergartens.

Primary Education
The beginning of systematic studies comprising reading, writing and mathematics. This level also includes programmes suited to children with special needs education. Literacy programmes within or outside the school system which are similar in content to programmes in primary education for those considered too old to enter elementary schools are also included at this level because they require no previous formal education.

Elementary textbook or basic learning material for teaching individuals the basic literacy and numeracy skills.

A coherent framework of action to achieve certain global (larger) objectives comprising separate sets of activities which are oriented towards the attainment of specific objectives.

Planned undertaking of interrelated and coordinated activities designed to achieve certain specific objectives within a given budget and period of time.

Proportion of Repeaters
Refers to the number of pupils still enrolled in the same grade as during the previous year (i.e. repeating), expressed as a percentage of the total enrolment in that grade.

Public Expenditure on Education
A government's total expenditure (capital and current) on the provision of educational services at all levels and types of education during a fiscal year.

Public Expenditure on Education as Percentage of GNP
Total public expenditure on education expressed as percentage of the Gross National Product.

Public Expenditure on Education as Percentage of Government Budget
Total public expenditure on education expressed as a percentage of total government budget.

Pupil-Teacher Ratio
Average number of pupils per teacher for the specified level of education.

Purchasing Power Parity Conversion Factor
Number of units of a country's currency required to buy the same amounts of goods and services in the domestic market as one dollar would buy in the United States.
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Quality of Life Improvement Programmes
These aim to equip learners and the community with the essential knowledge, attitudes, values and skills to enable them to improve the quality of life as individuals and as members of the community (ATLP-CE Volume IV).
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Relapse to Illiteracy
Return to illiteracy for those who did not achieve self-sustaining literacy skills or had no opportunity of using them.
Number of pupils who are enrolled in the same grade as the previous year.

Retention Rate
The proportion of pupils enrolled in a given school year that continues to be enrolled, whether promoted or not, during the following year.
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School-Age Population
Number of children in the officially defined school-age-group, whether enrolled in school or not.
Self Learning Level (Level III)
Learning level for adults who have completed intermediate level or can study independently and who are willing to use books and other resources in search of new knowledge (ATLP Curriculum).

SMILE stands for “Supporting Maternal and Child Health Improvement and Building Literate Environment.” It is a model project for literacy for women by ACCU-LRC network. ACCU is implementing the "SMILE Asia Project" in six Asian countries (Bangladesh, Cambodia, Lao P.D.R., Pakistan, Philippines and Nepal), which is designed to improve the literate environment of home and community and mothers’ and their children’s health

A person or organization that promotes and supports a development activity.

The equivalent of one hour of learning devoted towards completing a programme irrespective of the form of learning - whether at lectures (face-to-face in a classroom or transmitted over the television or radio); practical work in the laboratory/workshop or in the field; guided or self-study at home or in the library, etc. The number of study-hour per week is called intensity of learning or workload.
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Three Rs
Refers to Reading, Writing, and Arithmetic which are the three basic skills required for achieving basic literacy.
Total Fertility Rate
The number of children that would be born per woman if she were to live to the end of her child bearing years and bear children at each age in accordance with prevailing age-specific fertility rates.
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Under-5 Mortality Rate
The probability of dying between birth and exactly five years of age expressed per 1,000 live births.
United Nations Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (UNDESD)
In December 2002, the United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) adopted resolution 57/254 to put in place a United Nations Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (UNDESD), spanning from 2005 to 2014. The UNDESD, for which UNESCO is the lead agency, promotes Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) in thousands of local situations on the ground, and encourages the integration of principles of Sustainable Development into a multitude of different learning situations, in order to address the social, economic, cultural and environmental problems we face in the 21st century.
(The International Implementation Scheme for the UN Decade of Education for Sustainable Development:
(Source) UNESCO Website:,

Universal Primary Education (UPE)
Full enrolment of all children in the primary school age-group, i.e. 100 per cent net enrolment ratio.

Unreached Population
Various categories of target groups living in difficult circumstances: street children and working children, school drop-outs, marginalised youth, girls and women, migrants, displaced persons and refugees.
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Vocational Education
Training aimed at providing vocational and technical skills, knowledge and attitudes required to carry out an occupation.
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