Adult Education (or continuing or recurrent education)
The entire body of organised educational processes, whatever the content, level and method, whether formal or otherwise, whether they prolong or replace initial education in schools, colleges and universities as well as in apprenticeship, whereby persons regarded as adults by the society to which they belong, improve their technical or professional qualifications, further develop their abilities, enrich their knowledge with their purpose: a) to complete a level of formal education; b) to acquire knowledge and skills in a new field; c) to refresh or update their knowledge in a particular field.
Agricultural Productivity per Capita
The value of the gross domestic product produced by the agriculture (including hunting, forestry and fishing) sector at the current prices divided by the total population of the same year.

ACCU's "Asia/Pacific Joint Production Programme of Materials for Neo-Literates in Rural Areas." The AJP materials are first developed in English as prototypes through the cooperative efforts of literacy and subject experts in the UNESCO Member States of the Asia-Pacific Region. The objectives of AJP are to sustain the literacy skills of neo-literates in the region, and at the same time to provide useful knowledge and information to improve their quality of life.

APPEAL Manual for Planning and Management of Literacy and Continuing Education - Four Volumes of Manual produced by UNESCO/PROAP/APPEAL to improve the planning and management of non-formal education programmes.

Refers to the science of teaching a discipline. However, within the framework of the Asia-Pacific Literacy Data Base the focus is mainly on non-formal delivery modes.

Asia-Pacific Programme of Education for All - It refers to the regional cooperative programme established by UNESCO in 1987. Its programmes focus on the eradication of illiteracy, universalization of primary education, and expanding the provision of continuing education. Its primary constituencies are the vast number of illiterate adults and out-of-school children and youth, most of whom are female.

APPEAL's Training Materials for Literacy Personnel - Twelve volumes of training materials produced by UNESCO/PROAP/APPEAL to improve the quality of literacy and continuing education programmes in the Member States of the Asia-Pacific region. An illustrative manual on adapting ATLP for programmes for women has also been developed for promotion of literacy among girls and women.

Appeal Training Materials for Continuing Education Personnel - Eight volumes of training materials produced by UNESCO/PROAP/APPEAL covering continuing education programmes.
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Basic Education
Education intended to meet basic learning needs; it includes instruction at the first or foundation level, on which subsequent learning can be based; it encompasses early childhood and primary (elementary) education for children, as well as education in literacy, general knowledge and life skills for youth and adults; it may extend into secondary education in some countries.
Basic Learning Needs
Comprise both essential learning tools (such as literacy, oral expression, numeracy, and problem solving) and the basic learning content (such as knowledge, skills, values and attitudes) required by human beings to survive, to develop their full capacities, to live and work with dignity, to participate fully in development, to improve the quality of their lives, to make informed decisions and to continue learning.

Basic Level (Level I)
Learning programmes for youth and adults who : (1) have never been to school or who have dropped out of school before acquiring literacy skills; (2) are unable to read and write simple words, paragraphs or any other type of written statement without the help of a teacher. (ATLP Curriculum)
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Community Based Organizations, actively involved in the process of socio-economic development at the community and grassroots level.
Child Info
Child Info is a database of social development indicators on children and women produced by UNICEF Regional Office for South Asia. The database contains a list of indicators to monitor the goals of the World Summit for Children and other key indicators to monitor progress made around the world toward basic social services for all children, an enabling environment for their development and empowerment and advancement of women.

Class Room Hours
Number of study-hours in the classroom designated to achieve basic literacy under the curriculum in use.

Community Learning Centre (CLC)
Local institutions outside the formal education system for villagers or urban areas usually set up and managed by local people to provide various learning opportunities for community development and improvement of people's quality of life.

Compulsory Education
A government decree obliging and stipulating that children of an officially determined age-group, unless exempted, to attend a certain number of years of schooling.

Continuing Education (CE)
Education which takes place after the conclusion of initial or basic (elementary) education, to meet the daily, vocational and recurrent professional needs of adults. The term "continuing education," "further education" and "life-long education" are often taken to refer more to the ideals and goals of education. They have often understood as to be synonyms to "adult education," while in reality they have wider and less rigorous definitions, stretching even into the domain of informal learning.

A planned series of learning experiences in a particular range of subjects or skills offered by an institution and undertaken by one or more learners.

The subjects that are studied or prescribed for study in an educational programme.
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Disadvantaged Groups
People who, for one reason or another, do not benefit to the same degree as the majority of other people in their country from services provided by the government.
Distance Education
The term distance education covers the various forms of teaching and learning at all levels which are not under the continuous, immediate supervision of tutors' presence with their students in lecture rooms or on the same premises but which nevertheless benefit from the planning, counseling and tuition (i.e. tutoring, teaching) of the staff of a tutorial organization.
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E9 Countries
The nine high-population developing nations: Bangladesh, Brazil, China, Egypt, India, Indonesia, Mexico, Nigeria and Pakistan. They account for more than 70 per cent of the world's total estimated adult illiterates and a little more than half of its out-of-school children.
Education for All (EFA)
Provision of basic education in the sense of "expanded vision" proclaimed in the World Declaration on Education for All adopted by the World Conference on Education for All: Meeting Basic Learning Needs (Jomtien, Thailand, March 1990).

Education for Sustainable Development (ESD)
Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) is to help people to develop the attitudes, skills and knowledge to make informed decisions for the benefit of themselves and others, now and in the future, and to act upon these decisions.
(Source) UNESCO Website:

EFA 2000 Assessment
A major, global endeavour that aims to enable to participating countries (i) to construct a comprehensive picture of their progress towards their own Education for All goals since the 1990 Jomtien Conference, (ii) to identify priorities and promoting strategies for overcoming obstacles and accelerating progress, and (iii) to revise their national plans of action accordingly. The results should be useful for policy makers, planners and managers both within and outside government.

EFA Indicators
A set of 18 core EFA indicators grouped according to the six 'target dimensions' contained in the Framework for Action to Meet Basic Learning Needs agreed at the World Conference on Education for All (Jomtien, Thailand, 1990). Three indicators concerning literacy are (1) literacy rate of 15-24 year olds, (2) adult literacy rate, (3) literacy gender parity index.

EMIS (Educational Management Information System)
Refers to a formal method of providing educational managers with accurate and timely information so that decision-making, planning, project development and implementation and other management functions and operations can be carried out effectively.

Enrolment Ratio
(Gross) It refers to the total enrolment at a given level of education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the population in the officially defined school age-group.
(Net) Number of pupils in the official age-group for a given level of education enrolled in that level expressed as a percentage of the total population in that age-group.

A term quite often used by educational planners to denote "eradication of illiteracy."

Equivalency Programmes
These are designed as alternative education programmes equivalent to existing formal, general or vocational education (ATLP-CE Volume III).

Appraisal, assessment of a project or programme.
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Formal Education
Refers to intentionally organized full-time learning events with regular fixed duration and schedule, structured hierarchy with chronological succession of levels and grades, admission requirements, and formal registration, catering mainly to population of 5 to 25 years old, which are held within established educational institutions, and using pre-determined pedagogical organization, contents, methods and teaching learning materials.
Functional Literacy
The ability to use literacy skills for particular purposes in the home, community or workplace.

Future Oriented Programmes
These programmes equip workers, professional, regional and national community leaders, villagers, businessmen and planners with new skills, knowledge and techniques to adapt themselves and their organizations to social and technological changes (ATLP-CE Volume VII).
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Geographic information system (GIS) is a combination of maps with tables and reports. GIS can answer location, condition, trends (what has changed in time), pattern, and model (simulation.) It is an useful tool to present EMIS geographically.
Grants and Aids
The total funds provided by a donor without a commitment from the recipient to repay the principal.

Gross Domestic Product (GDP)
The sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy, including distributive trades and transport, plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products.

Gross National Product (GNP)
The sum of gross value added by all resident producers plus any taxes (less subsidies) that are not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (employee compensation and property income) from nonresident sources.

Gross National Product per Capita
The gross national product converted to US dollars using the World Bank Atlas method, divided by the midyear population.
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Human Development Index (HDI)
The HDI measures the overall achievements in a country in three basic dimensions of human development-longevity, knowledge and a decent standard of living. It is measured by life expectancy, educational attainment (adult literacy and combined primary, secondary and tertiary enrolment) and adjusted income.
Human Resources Development
A term often used by development economists and education administrators to denote productive investment in human beings (formal and non-formal education, short-term and on the job training) that enhances their knowledge, skills, and abilities to perform day to day tasks.
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Illiteracy Rate
Estimated number of illiterate adults expressed as a percentage of the total adult population (15 years and above).
Income-Generating Programmes
These help participants enhance their capability of generating or increasing their income in cash or in other forms of profit (ATLP-CE Volume V).

Individual Interest Promotion Programmes
These provide opportunity for individuals to participate in and learn about their chosen social, cultural, spiritual, health, physical and artistic interests (ATLP-CE Volume VI).

Infant Mortality Rate
Probability of dying between birth and exactly one year of age expressed per 1,000 live births.

International Standard Classification of Education - Designed by UNESCO in the early 1970's to serve "as an instrument suitable for assembling, compiling and presenting statistics of education both within individual countries and internationally." It presents standard concepts, definitions and classifications. ISCED covers all organized and sustained learning opportunities for children, youth and adults including those with special needs education, irrespective of the institution or entity providing them or the form in which they are delivered.
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Learning Centres
Locally organized educational institutions outside the formal education system for villages or urban areas, usually set up and managed by local people to provide various learning opportunities for community development and improvement of people's quality of life.
Learning Society
Every citizen should have the means of learning, training and cultivating him/herself freely available to him/her, under all circumstances, so that s/he will be in a fundamentally different position in relation to his/her own education.

Life Expectancy at Birth
The number of years newborn children would live subject to the mortality risks prevailing for the cross-section of population at the time of their birth.

Life-Long Learning
Denotes an overall scheme aimed at restructuring the existing educational system and at developing the entire educational potential outside the education system; in such a scheme men and women are the agents of their own education.

Literacy Clip Art
A literacy material developed by ACCU for helping the material developers at community levels. It is a collection of illustrations covering subjects areas common in community development, and available both in CD-ROM and book format. For more details and how to order, please see

Literacy gender parity index (LGPI)
The ratio of the female to male adult literacy rates measures progress towards gender equity in literacy and the level of learning opportunities available for women in relation to those available to men. It serves also as a significant indicator of the empowerment of women in society. LGPI = FLIT (female adult literacy rate) / MLIT (male adult literacy rate)

Literacy Programmes
Programmes primarily to impart literacy and numeracy skills to youth and adults.

Literacy Rate
Estimated number of literate adults expressed as a percentage of the total adult population (15 years and above).

Literacy Resource Centre (LRC)
ACCU's Literacy Resource Centres for Girls and Women managed by its NGO partners for the promotion of literacy in the Asia-Pacific region. The Centres provide technical support to local NGOs and literacy workers, and act as a centre of literacy network at domestic and regional level.

A person aged 15 years or over who can with understanding both read and write a short, simple statement about everyday life.

Funds provided by donors that involve a commitment from the recipient to repay both the principal and the interest.
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